A logical fallacy is a error in reasoning due to a misconception or presumption. If the assumptions of an argument are true, the argument can still be rendered invalid if the logic used to come to the conclusion is not legitimate. That is, if the logic is “fallacious”.
Our brains tend to take shortcuts when solving problems – called “heuristics”. These rules of thumb are handy, and are true some of the time, but they can also lead us down the wrong path when they are substituted for formal logic.
People can easily and unintentionally fall victim to logical fallacies, but can also use them purposefully to win an argument against a person who doesn’t understand them. So, the best way to use sound logic when arguing is to identify and understand them.
There are many lists of logical fallacies, but the folks over at InformationIsBeautiful have once again outdone themselves and created an infographic that covers all kinds of fallacies. Learn them, and use them in your next argument or debate!