Some of the brightest minds in history have used mathematics to lay the foundation for how we measure and understand our universe. From Newton to Einstein, we have seen that a relatively simple equation or formula can alter the course of humanity. Here are just a small sample of these equations and theories.

**Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation**, which states states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.**Einstein’s Theory of Relativity**, which states that all motion must be defined relative to a frame of reference and that space and time are relative, rather than absolute concepts.**The Pythagorean Theorem**, a fundamental principle in Euclidean Geometry**Maxwell’s Equations**describing magnetic fields.**The Second Law of Thermodynamics**, which states that whenever energy is transformed from one form to another form, or matter moves freely, entropy increases.**Logarithms**, the power to which a number must be raised in order to get some other number**Calculus**, the mathematical study of change.**Schrodinger’s Equation**, a partial differential equation that describes how the quantum state of a quantum system changes with time.**Information Theory**, a branch of applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and computer science involving the quantification, storage, and communication of information.**Chaos Theory**, the branch of mathematics that deals with complex systems whose behavior is highly sensitive to slight changes in conditions, so that small alterations can give rise to strikingly great consequences.

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Source: Futurism.com